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North Dakota Journal of Speech & Theatre

Article abstracts 1987-1996

1987.

1988.

1989.

1990.

1991.

1992.

1993.

1994.

1995.

1996.

Abstracts courtesy of Robert S. Littlefield, Voices on the Prairie. Bringing Speech & Theatre to North Dakota (Fargo: NDSU Institute for Regional Studies, 1998), Chapter 10.

Volume 1, Number 1, 1987

Editors: Jonathan Amsbary (NDSU) and Rebecca Hilliker (NDSU)

"1986 Convention Keynote Address: 'Communication Arts in North Dakota: Celebrating a Culture'" by Suzanne J. Hagen, University of Wisconsin--River Falls, Chair and Professor of Communication
Drawing on her roots in North Dakota at Dickinson High School, Hagen provided background on her early days as a teacher and speech coach, her decision to pursue a graduate degree, and her current position at River Falls. Next, she developed a narrative recounting significant educators in North Dakota; including: Frederick Koch (UND), Alfred Arvold (NDSU), Frederick Walsh (NDSU), Winifred Stump (Dickinson SU), Dick Haney and John Paul (Mandan HS), Rhoda Hansen (Fargo North), Sisters Claudette and Charlene (New England St. Mary's), Richard Wilhelmi (U of Mary), Wayne Sanstead (Minot), John Penn (UND), and Jim Ubbelohde (NDSU). Her advice to the convention was to agree on the value, goals, and objectives of speech and theatre education; and to communicate about the role of speech and theatre to administrators, colleagues, and students.

"The Difficulties Facing Feminist Theatre: The Survival of At the Foot of the Mountain" by Sandra Bemis, North Dakota State University, Theatre Arts Major
Feminist theatre was unique because there had never before been a theatre movement led by women. Furthermore, feminist theatre presented truthful images of women and the women's experience through a growing body of drama which specifically focused on women. While feminist in intent, feminist theatre did not have the support of all feminists. Bemis concluded that "the goal of feminist theatre groups is not to be accepted by mainstream American theatre but rather to create an alternative to it."

"A Rhetorical Analysis of Reagan's Discourse at Bitburg" by Jay Plum, North Dakota State University, Theatre Arts Major
This was a rhetorical analysis of Ronald Reagan's speech at the Bitburg Cemetery in Germany using the methodology developed by Lloyd F. Bitzer. By focusing on the rhetorical situation, Plum explained how Reagan's visit and discourse diffused criticism from American Jews, veterans, and members of Congress.

"Communication Patterns Observed in the Dakota Sun Dance" by Carol Lindberg, North Dakota State University, Speech Communication Graduate Student
The article focused on the dimensions of nonverbal communication utilized during the annual Sun Dance ceremony performed by the Dakota Sioux in the last half of the nineteenth century. Analysis centered around proxemic, kinesic, paralinguistic, objectic, and chronemic nonverbal elements of communication.

"Open Classroom Communication: An Argument for Re-Evaluation of Teaching Strategies" by Mary Gill, University of North Dakota, Director of Forensics
How teachers communicate in their classrooms may affect the willingness of their students to participate in class discussions. Strategies to improve classroom communication were offered, including: Changing from lecture to more informal format; making the atmosphere more comfortable in the classroom; developing more frequent and effective interpersonal communication opportunities between student and teacher; providing a more honest response to student concerns and questions.

"The Effects of 'Powerful' and 'Powerless' Speech Styles on Speech Effectiveness in a Non-Courtroom Setting" by Keith Green, University of North Dakota, Communications Graduate Student
The study sought to determine if there was a relationship between the grades given student speakers by teaching assistants and the number of power indicators present in their speeches. The independent variables chosen were intensifiers, hedges, hesitation forms, gestures, and questioning forms. The Pearson's Correlation supported the conclusion at the .05 level of significance that a relationship existed between the absence of the power indicators and the grades given to speakers. Language variables were shown to affect a listener's perception of the speaker and the message.

"Believe in What You Teach--Enhancing Speaking Skills across the Curriculum" by Arlyn Marquardt, Minot Magic City Campus
Marquardt described the importance of speaking well as one of the most valuable assets a person can possess. A list of thirty speaking activities was provided for adaptation to the classroom.

Journal ad sponsors: NDSU Department of Mass Communication, Speech Communication, Theatre Arts; and the ND High School Activities Association.

Editorial Reviewers: Dan DeStephen, Wright State University; Merope Pavlides, Trinity University; Joan Pasterik, Indiana University; Steve Ralston, Creighton University.

 

Volume 1, Number 2, 1988

Editors: Jonathan Amsbary (NDSU) and Rebecca Hilliker (NDSU)

"Acceptance of Induction into Hall of Fame" by Rhoda Hansen, Fargo North High School
Hansen's acceptance speech credited the North Dakota High School Activities Association, supportive administrators, but especially students she worked with during her years as the head speech coach.

"A Geneology of American Burlesque" by Mark H. Sterner, Valley City State University, Assistant Professor of Theatre Arts
Burlesque had a brief but exuberant history in American theatre. Sterner suggested that "burlesque took advantage of a growing liberality in moral standards and added to its feminine display the bite of satire and the raucousness of slapstick" (9). By studying burlesque, scholars can understand more about the social attitudes of that period of American history.

"The Little Country Theatre: Alfred G. Arvold's Efforts to Promote a New Social Vision for Rural America" by Jay Plum, North Dakota State University, Theatre Arts Major
Alfred Arvold's "social experiment" of the Little Country Theatre was an effort to bridge the gap between rural and urban society. Arvold believed that drama could be used as "a social tool through which the problems, concerns, and heritage of rural citizens could be expressed." Plum detailed the factors motivating Arvold to create the Little Country Theatre in 1914, his selection of plays, his support for the development of community productions, and his lending library of plays. The significance of his efforts in the state was evidenced by the fact that "more than 125,000 North Dakotans performed under Arvold's leadership" (17).

"The Senator's Age: A Recurring Campaign Issue" by Colan T. Hanson, North Dakota State University, Professor of Communication
This rhetorical study drew a parallel between the treatment of the age issue in the North Dakota U.S. Senate campaigns of 1974 and 1988 using an adaptation of Bitzer's model of criticism, Leland Griffin's concept of studying historical movements, and Ziegelmueller and Dause's concept of communication strategists. The following parallels were suggested: a challenge to the incumbent from within the incumbent's party, an aggressive response to the age issue by the incumbent, the inclusion of the seniority system as a tool to communicate the strength and power of the incumbent, and the low key treatment of the age issue by the challenger in the campaign.

"Arthur C. Townley: Speaking for Coalition" by Alice C. Poehls, University of North Dakota, Communications Graduate Student
Poehl's historical-critical study highlights the stylistic rhetoric of Arthur C. Townley from 1915-1922. North Dakota's Nonpartison League was an agrarian political party formed to alleviate the grain marketing problems of the state's farmers.

"A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Rhetoric of Arthur Link and Allen Olson in the 1980 North Dakota Gubernatorial Campaign" by Barbara Perry Cichy, Bismarck State College, Instructor of Speech and Theatre
The study analyzed the rhetoric of Democrat Gubernatorial incumbent Arthur Link and Republican challenger Attorney General Allen Olson. Ernest Bormann's fantasy theme analysis was used to identify the scene of the campaign; the campaign itself; Arthur Link's rhetorical visions of North Dakotans as "fiscally conservative, cautious in North Dakota resource development, and socially progressive with a major concern for the quality of life . . . " (44); Allen Olson's rhetorical visions of North Dakota as abundant with natural resources; himself as a builder and mover; and North Dakota as no longer a state of hardship, but rather important to the future of the world. The voters of North Dakota preferred Olson's rhetorical vision.

"The Field Study as a Small Group" by Timothy Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
Three problems associated with small group discussion assignments were identified, including inadequate preparation on the part of participants, lack of conversational quality when speaking, and use of stereotyped analytical procedures. Two assignments were offered (a descriptive assignment and an exploratory field study) to assist teachers in overcoming these concerns.

Editorial Reviewers: Dan DeStephen, Wright State University; Suzanne Lindsey, University of Alabama-Burmingham; Gary Heisserer, University of Wisconsin; and Joan Pasterik, Prism Communications

 

Volume 2, Number 1, 1989

Editors: Timothy L. Sellnow (NDSU) and Mark H. Sterner (Valley City SU)

Editorial Assistants: Deanna Sellnow (UND) and LaVonne Wahl (NDSU)

"Gordon Kahl's Demonic Rhetoric" by Stephen Rendahl, University of North Dakota, Associate Professor of Communication
The study analyzed the words and deeds of Gordon Kahl and the Posse Comitatus in 1983 to discover the differences between his perception of a demonic melodrama and the drama in Medina, North Dakota, as portrayed by the mainstream media. Reasons why the Kahl story was scrutinized by the media, included: The intertwining of Kahl's crime and politics; the threat to the public by Kahl and the Posse; the chronology of events followed the conflict, complication, crisis, and resolution stages of an ideal story; and the sympathy shown toward Kahl by a portion of the public. Kahl's rhetorical vision was explained through his letters to the media in terms of a demonic melodrama: the actor, the acts, the plot line, the scene, the style, the motives, and the sanctioning agent.

"Theatre with a Global Vision: The Encyclopedic Dramaturgy of Thornton Wilder" by Paul Lifton, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Theatre Arts
Lifton claimed that Thornton Wilder was an enigma among twentieth-century American dramatists because he couldn't be pidgeon-holed into a particular style. Wilder's dramaturgy reflected a resemblance to the Symbolists, the Naturalists, the Expressionists, Brecht, the Futurists, and Pirandello. This encyclopedic quality reflects a macro-quality of world dramatic literature.

"The Blake and Mouton Grid as a Model for Effective Parent/Child Communication" by Jonathan Amsbary, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Assistant Professor of Speech Communication
The study of family communication, particularly between parent and child, has been a neglected area of communication study. Blake and Mouton's grid, contrasting concern for task and concern for the individual, was suggested as one way to measure the family environment in which communication takes place. Amsbary concluded that empirical research was needed to determine this model's effectiveness.

"President Theodore Roosevelt's Rhetoric and Symbolic Acts: Communication and Rhetorical Implications" by Robert A. Bode, University of North Dakota, Assistant Professor of Communication
The study examined selected rhetorical and symbolic acts of Theodore Roosevelt while President of the United States. His views regarding America's vigilante tradition, violence, fighting, and use of firearms were delineated. His public positions became symbolic strategies designed to alter public opinion regarding issues and activities perceived by some to be illegal. Roosevelt's public speaking skills contributed to his persuasiveness with American audiences.

"Orators and Elocutionists of the Chautauqua--From New York to North Dakota" by Raymond L. Fischer, University of North Dakota, Professor of Communication
North Dakota provided a receptive field for the Chautauqua Movement. Fischer traced the historical development of chautauquas in America. Specific details about North Dakota Chautauquas focused on the following sites: Devils Lake, Valley City, Mandan, Minot, and Walhalla.

"Integrating Communication into the Curriculum: Back to the Basics" by Robert S. Littlefield, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
Effective use of voice, effective use of body, development of clear ideas and messages, and practice opportunities were offered as four areas of training to be integrated into assignments across the curriculum.

"Strategies to Enhance the Use of Documentation in Extemporaneous Speaking" by Pamela S. Joraanstad, North Dakota State University, Instructor of Speech Communication
Joraanstad argued that regular analysis sessions conducted by a coach with extempers, the development of an extemp file, and proper source citation techniques enhance the presentation of the speaker.

"The Filled Pause in Small Group Communication" by LaVonne Wahl and Todd Holm, North Dakota State University, Communication Graduate Students
The authors offered three exercises to help participants in small group discussions to understand how and why pauses occur. Awareness was cited as important in helping those using pause to regulate their frequency.

"NDSTA Hall of Fame Inductees--1987 and 1988"
Photographs of Alfred Arvold (1987), Rhoda Hansen (1987), Wayne Sanstead (1988), Winifred Stump (1988), and Frederick Walsh (1988) were published.

Journal Ad Sponsors: NDSU Department of Mass Communication, Speech Communication, Theatre Arts; Dickinson State University School of Arts and Science; Allard Trophy Company, Valley City, ND; University of Mary; UND School of Communication and Department of Theatre Arts; Valley City State University Communication Arts Department

Editorial Reviewers: Jonathan Amsbary, University of Alabama-Birmingham; Robert Bode, UND; Anthony Palmeri, Rochester Institute of Technology; Thomas Endries, St. Olaf College; Kenneth Haught, St. Cloud State University; E. James Ubbelohde, NDSU

 

Volume 3, 1990

Editors: Timothy L. Sellnow (NDSU) and Mark H. Sterner (Valley City SU)

Editorial Assistants: Jane Larson (NDSU), Deanna Sellnow (UND), and Cheryl Silcox (NDSU)

"Old Senators Do Not Die: They Just Get Re-Elected" by Colan T. Hanson, North Dakota State University, Professor of Communication
This rhetorical analysis of the 1988 U.S. Senate campaign in North Dakota explored the issue of age as it related to Quentin Burdick and his reelection over the Republican challenger Earl Strinden. Bitzer, Ziegelmueller and Dause, and Weaver provided the theoretical basis for the study. Parallels were drawn with Milton Young's 1974 U.S. Senate campaign when the issue of age was also a factor. The issue of age was not a factor, and Burdick won reelection by nearly 28 percent over his challenger.

"Brecht and Breen: Alienation Techniques of Narrative Theatre" by Lawrence J. Knowles, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Theatre Arts
The paper examined the use of the techniques of the Epic Theatre in the performance and staging of prose fiction, commonly called chamber or narrative theatre. The use of these techniques, attributed to Bertolt Brecht, alienate and provide the audience with the necessary aesthetic distance to maintain its intellectual viewpoint.

"The Rhetoric of Oklahoma Fest: White Supremacist Attacks on Society" by Stephen Rendahl, University of North Dakota, Associate Professor of Communication, and Virgil Moberg, Graduate Student in Communication
Their study analyzed Tom and John Metzger's speeches at the Oklahoma Fest to discover how they attempted to delegitimize society's established order and reframed the facts to legitimize a new order. The concepts of legitimation, delegitimation, communicational realities, and framing and reframing were used to frame the analysis.

"From Stanislavski to the Method: The Ossification of Actor Training in America" by Mark H. Sterner, Valley City State University, Assistant Professor of Communication Arts
The history of the Stanislavski Method for training actors was provided from its beginnings in 1924 in Russia to its modifications in America up into the mid-1930s. The changes in the method occurred due to personality differences among teachers and students, barriers of language and time which tended to obscure the original ideas, and the various circumstances under which the system was utilized.

"The Survivalist Right's Rhetorical Justification of Violence" by Gail Ann Baker, University of North Dakota, Graduate Student, and Robert A. Bode, Assistant Professor of Communication
The authors focused on the violent and hate-filled rhetoric of the Survivalist Right by exploring the recurrent myth of victimage to justify violence. Kenneth Burke's dramatistic perspective illustrated how order was established and maintained symbolically through guilt, hierarchy, mortification, scapegoating, transcendence and redemption.

"Not Just Another Case Study: Using a Nonparticipant Observation Workbook in a Small Group Class" by Thomas G. Endres, University of St. Thomas, Assistant Professor of Communication
A nonparticipant observation assignment was suggested as a valuable learning tool in the small group class. Students may recognize more details of group interacton if they are not a member of the group being observed. To help structure this observation, a workbook provided direction and highlighted key areas for analysis.

"Telecommunication Systems and Forensics in North Dakota" by Robert S. Littlefield, North Dakota State University, Associate Professor of Communication
The author identified geographic, economic, and professional challenges facing the forensic coach. The interactive video communication system being introduced through the State University System in North Dakota was offered as one way to promote rather than reduce forensic activity in the state.

"Addressing the Issue of Movement in Dramatic Duo Competition" by Sally J. Ray, University of Kentucky, Assistant Professor of Speech Communication
The history of dramatic duo as an event was traced from its inception at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Tournament to the present. Controversy over the use of movement was raised, as well as solutions designed to promote adherence to rules and consistency in judging at invitationals.

"1989 NDSTA Hall of Fame Inductees"
The photographs of Robert Littlefield and Barbara Ann Gehrki, 1989 Hall of Fame Inductees were included.

Journal Ad Sponsors: UND School of Communication and Department of Theatre Arts; Valley City State University Communication Arts Department; Dickinson State University School of Arts and Science; Allard Trophy Company, Valley City; University of Mary; NDSU Department of Mass Communication, Speech Communication, Theatre Arts

Editorial Reviewers: Duane Brown, Valley City State University; Thomas G. Endres, College of St. Thomas; Kenneth Haught, St. Cloud State University; Theresa Krier, North Dakota State University; Anthony Plamer, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh; Sally J. Ray, University of Kentucky

 

Volume 4, 1991

Editors: Timothy L. Sellnow (NDSU) and Mark H. Sterner (Valley City SU)

Editorial Assistants: Deanna Sellnow (UND) and Cheryl Silcox (NDSU)

Administrative Assistant: Karen L. Williams (NDSU)

"Communication Competence: What Is It?" by Donna Stack, University of Mary, Assistant Professor of Communication
Communication competence was defined. Teacher effectiveness and communication competence were linked by analyzing the variables of knowledge, skill/performance, and motivation.

"Education in North Dakota: A Question of Communication Competence" by Deanna Sellnow, University of North Dakota, Graduate Student in Communication
The study analyzed the message sent by the North Dakota population on December 5, 1989, when a "no vote" prevailed on all education-related issues (#3, #4, and #7). Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative competence revealed that the voters questioned the validity of the issues the representatives deemed important, and by voting down the tax increases, the general population reinforced the notion that the legislature did not make valid decisions.

"Building Communication Competency in North Dakota: A Review of Selected Existing Curricula" by Robert S. Littlefield, North Dakota State University, Associate Professor of Communication
A survey of selected schools (35) with speech and/or drama curricula asked respondents to identify the speech and theatre courses offered in their schools, when the courses were offered, the appropriate grade level, texts used, and teachers on staff who taught the speech and theatre courses. More speech classes than theatre were taught, usually for a semester, by a single teacher in the school district to senior-high level students, without the use of textbooks in a majority of cases.

"Eighteenth-Century Theatre and the American Fascination with Education" by Kurt L. Garrett, University of North Dakota, Professor of Theatre
This historical study traces the love-hate relationship of early Americans from 1759 to 1854 with the theatre. The educational value of the theatre became an attractive feature for Americans concerned about the illiteracy of the populace.

"White Aryan Resistance: A Radical Communication System" by Stephen E. Rendahl, University of North Dakota, Associate Professor of Communication
The author discussed the communication system used by the White Aryan Resistance which uses a variety of mediums to reinforce its messages. Blending ideological statements with literature and current events, the system allowed for feedback and delivered the message to both literate and illiterate audiences.

"Building an Ensemble" by Jean Waldera, Dickinson State University, Professor of Theatre
The article provided activities for building an ensemble at the high school or collegiate levels. The initial exercises build a sense of comradeship among the acting company; additional activities strengthen the depth of the alliances and relationships.

"Advice on Advising a Communication Club" by Thomas G. Endres, University of St. Thomas, Assistant Professor of Communication
A nonperformance organization for communication majors and minors was portrayed as a valuable resource for students and faculty. Much of the success will be contingent upon appropriate advising. Suggestions included: keep communication at the core, define adviser role clearly, provide a variety of resources, serve the department, and access available resources. Patience was recommended.

"Going Beyond the American Flag and the 30-Second Spot: A Unit on Speaking to Persuade" by John F. Scheeler, Minot High School Teacher
A twelve-day unit to teach persuasive speaking at the secondary-level class was offered with modifications so that either an English or a social studies teacher could used the materials. Evaluation forms were provided.

"1990 NDSTA Hall of Fame Inductees and Award Winners"
Hall of Fame inductees Bonnie Wilson and Susan Anderson were identified, as well as the other recipients of NDSTA Elected and Selected Annual Awards for 1990.

Journal Ad Sponsors: University of North Dakota School of Communication and Department of Theatre Arts; Valley City State University Communication Arts Department; Dickinson State University School of Arts and Science; Allard Trophy Company, Valley City; University of Mary; North Dakota State University Department of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Duane Brown, Valley City State University; Thomas G. Endres, University of St. Thomas; Kenneth Haught, St. Cloud St. University; Theresa Krier, North Dakota State University; Deanna Sellnow, University of North Dakota

 

Volume 5, 1992

Editors: Timothy L. Sellnow (NDSU) and Beverly A. Huschka (U of Mary)

Editorial Assistants: A. Wesley Jones, University of Mary; Robert M. Huschka, University of North Dakota; and Steve Venette, North Dakota State University

"North Dakota and Minnesota Farm Crisis Pseudo-Events" by Stephen Rendahl, University of North Dakota, Associate Professor of Communication
The events created by farmers to symbolize their distress as they communicate with the general population and political leaders were investigated. The paper used Burke's discussion of "ratios" to illuminate Bennett's critique of biases inherent in the news, suggesting that the media prefers to personalize and normalize news stories. Conclusions suggested: 1) In order to create a favorable news report, the people staging it should seek a normal, traditional past; 2) if protesters want favorable reporting, they should not attack institutions; and 3) protesters must create a scene-purpose ratio by directing reporters to report on the broad scene, rather than specific actions of the farmers.

"The Comic Embellishment of a Tragic Situation: Combining Testimony and Music in the Farm Aid Telecast" by Deanna Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
The article explored reasons for the dwindling concern for family farmers in America. The nature of the Farm Aid telecasts, the needs of the farmers, and modifications recommended for future telecasts were presented. The concepts on comic and tragic rhythm in aesthetic symbolism as developed by Langer provided the basis for examining how the telecasts changed. The change in subject matter and the focus of the musical performances was cited as the principle reason for the decline. The author suggested a return to the earlier format to increase success in the future.

"The End Is at Hand&emdash;Really!: Strategies for Differentiating the Dubious Claim in North Dakotan Apocalyptic Rhetoric" by Norman E. Clark, University of North Dakota, Graduate Student in Communication
In the context of the Persian Gulf War, this case study identified five strategies an apocalyptcist used to persuade the audience that the end was at hand: the biblical timetable, trigger-words, yes-response series, the expert interpreter, and the true believer appeal. A substantial literature review of apocalypticism as social ideology, literary genre, and rhetorical genre was offered.

"Gandhi's Nonviolent Rhetorical Perspective" by Robert A. Bode, University of North Dakota, Assistant Professor of Communication
Gandhi's unique rhetorical perspective, as illustrated through the following conclusions, was presented: His classification of violent and nonviolent rhetorical practices; his belief that persons should have as a goal the maintenance of relationships and the enrichment of personhood; the desirability of having a flexible rhetorical stance in conflict resolution situations; and his suggestion that openness was essential to the successful resolution of differences. The result of this rhetorical position will be more ethical behavior.

"Burkean Methodology for the Study of Rhetorical Intent in Short Journalistic Writing" by Jacqueline Carter, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
Burke was used to examine the persuasive intent in newswriting. The author questioned the nature of journalistic reporting as being "objective," and suggested that magazine editors and writers have a point of view they wish their readers to accept concerning the subject being reported.

"Competition Versus Education: Are We Coaching What We Are Teaching?" by Robert S. Littlefield, North Dakota State University, Associate Professor of Communication
The study explored the goals and objectives of teaching and coaching forensics. The author used the North Dakota State Program Approval Standards (1992) to review selected curricula in North Dakota and concluded that based upon the sample, educators are teaching communication skills that can transcend the classroom into the forensic tournament environment.

"It Ain't What They Teach, It's the Way They Teach It" by C.W. Chandler, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
The article discussed the nature of broadcast journalism as a means of communication and suggested three ways to prepare students for participation in the Broadcasting Event sponsored by the North Dakota High School Activities Association.

"Organizational Patterns in Winning Orations" by Wayne C. McKelvey, North Dakota State University, Graduate Student in Speech Communication
A content analysis of twelve textbooks used to teach public speaking produced the organizational patterns of persuasive speaking most often mentioned. These findings were compared with the results of a content analysis of selected speeches at the Interstate Oratory Association to determine which organizational patterns were used by the most successful speech contestants. The problem-cause-solution format was found to be the most popular of the persuasive models used by contestants.

"NDSTA Award Winners"
A listing of the 1991 Hall of Fame Inductees (Mark Joraanstad, formerly of Fargo Shanley High School; Jerry Popp, Bowman High School, and Dr. Constance West, NDSU) appeared, along with the other nominated and elected NDSTA Award Winners.

Journal Ad Sponsors: University of Mary; Allard Trophy Company, Valley City; Dickinson State University School of Arts and Sciences; University of North Dakota School of Communication and Department of Theatre Arts; NDSU Department of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Lynn Disbrow, University of Dayton; Thomas G. Endres, University of St. Thomas; Robert S. Littlefield, NDSU; Sally J. Ray, University of Kentucky; and Deanna D. Sellnow, NDSU

 

Volume 6, 1993

Editors: Stephen Rendahl (UND) and Beverly A. Huschka (U of Mary)

Editorial Assistants: Robert M. Huschka (UND) and Donna Stack (U of Mary)

"Teaching Strategies for a Gender Equitable Classroom" by Deanna D. Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
This study clarified several characteristics of stereotypically feminine and masculine speakers, explained how and why students may behave in accordance with such stereotypes, revealed some of the consequences of perpetuating such stereotypes, and proposed several strategies teachers might employ to reduce gender bias in the classroom.

"The New Debate: Postmodern Analysis of the Debate Activity" by Liza D. Krug, Graduate Student, and Eric L. Krug, University of North Dakota, Instructor of Communication
The authors offered postmodern analysis as a way to assess the current status of the debate activity. Postmodern assessment of debate rounds was difficult because of the reliance on logic, truth, and structured content. The debate team and squad could be assessed because of the changing roles of the individuals involved. The formal and informal socialization processes of debate entail learning the proper actions for the proper times and the information gathering process compels debaters to accept a diversity of arguments as they search for evidence.

"Letter from the Jail: Lambs of Christ Fargo, North Dakota" by Joann K. Mathias, University of North Dakota Graduate Student
The paper used the feminist critique and the ethics of care and justice to analyze a "letter from the Fargo jail" to determine if the women's perspective was included in the latter addressed to "Christian American Families." Conclusions suggested that rhetorical choices were male oriented and directed to males; women were not given a voice in the letter; and nothing other than "the cause" mattered, prompting the audience to sacrifice their home life and "come to Fargo."

"North Dakota's 1989 Tax Referral as Organizational Crisis: The Response of Governor Sinner" by Timothy L. Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
Sellnow combined Burke's concept of purification with the apologetic postures described by Ware and Linkugel to explain the relationship between organizational spokespersons and the public images of organizations during times of crisis. George Sinner's performance suggested that a rhetor could change postures during a crisis without being condemned by his or her relevant audience. Sinner successfully changed postures from transcendence and mortification to victimage as the crisis intensified.

"'Open Hailing Frequencies, Data': Television's Reinforcement and Compulsion of Technology in Communication" by Norman Clark, University of Iowa
Messages about communication and communication technologies implicit in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation were analyzed to identify the influence of such programs on perceptions of communication technologies. The author argued that "the presentation of science fiction on television creates an important dynamic and dilemma: the reinforcement and compulsion of technology by technology."

"The Fourth Annual Gathering at Bigfork" by Conrad Davidson, Minot State University, Assistant Professor of Communication Arts
The Gathering at Bigfork was described as an opportunity for playwrights to bring works in progress to explore and celebrate the craft of making a play.

"1992 NDSTA Award Winners"
The 1992 Hall of Fame Inductees (Sister Claudette Hudalla, formerly Trinity and St. Mary's High School, and Robert Hetler, North Dakota High School Activities Association) were named, as well as the other elected and nominated awards of the NDSTA.

Journal Ad Sponsors: University of North Dakota School of Communication; University of Mary; Allard Trophy Company, Valley City; North Dakota State University Department of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Robert Bode, Western Washington University; Mary Gill, Buena Vista College; Thomas Endres, University of St. Thomas; Dennis Davis, University of North Dakota

 

Volume 7, 1994

Editors: Stephen Rendahl (UND) and Beverly A. Huschka (U of Mary)

Editorial Assistants: Bonnie Taylor, University of Mary; Jerry Anderson, University of Mary

"The Dilemma of Diversity" by Winifred Stump DeLong, Dickinson State University, Professor Emeritus
In the keynote address for the 1993 NDSTA convention, the author called on the audience to avoid the dilemma of rejecting or embracing diversity by highlighting the promise of America's cultural, racial, and ethnic diversity in creating unity without focusing too narrowly on the differences.

"Time Ain't Money: Dragging the Modernist Kicking & Screaming into the Postmodern Era" by Ellen Crawford, University of North Dakota, Graduate Student in Communication
The paper examined some of the tenets of modernism that seem to be the most difficult to release: human supremacy, time, empiricism, and technology. These tenets were explored first within a definition of modernism, and then within an exploration of modernism's success or failure. Then, postmodernism was defined in terms of its causes and effects on the modernist, most notably confusion and self-reflexivity. The perennial now was presented as a tool for finding a comfortable means of transit into the postmodern era.

"Building a Media Celebrity" by Ross F. Collins, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
The Marquis de Mores was given celebrity status by the press due to his aristocratic demeanor, good looks, ready bravura, and uncanny ability to appropriate fashionable trends for his own self-promotion. The article is an historical account of his life, with emphasis on his self-destructive behavior that contributed to his celebrity status.

"Why the Gamble Worked: A Metaphorical Analysis of Dances with Wolves" by Julie Anderson, Graduate Student in Communication and Deanna D. Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
The authors conducted metaphoric criticism to discover how the image of Indians shifted as the movie Dances with Wolves progressed. Subsequently, Burke's notion of form was employed to determine how aesthetic constructs, specifically progressive form, embellished the various metaphors offered including Indians as enemy, Indians as victims, Indians as human beings, and Indians as models of peace.

"Susan Faludi and Molly Ivins: A Feminist Critique" by Mary Helen Richer, University of North Dakota, Graduate Student
The paper described the importance of gender communication research and continued with biographies of two best-selling authors: Susan Faludi and Molly Ivins. Speeches by these women were examined using Campbell's theory that women's rhetoric is a genre to determine their similarities or differences to female and/or male rhetorical styles. The substance, style, tag questions, qualifiers, vocabulary, and disclaimers of the women suggested that both reflect a male perspective while Faludi follows a feminist rhetorical pattern.

"Communication and Family Roles: Mother-Daughter Talk in Marsha Norman's 'night mother" by Connie J. Breding, New Mexico University-Alamogordo
The study analyzed the final conversation between Thelma and Jessie from a role perspective, noting that the communication patterns employed by Thelma conformed to and reinforced the cultural responses for a woman who actively enacted the mother role, but the communication utilized by Jessie contained much ambivalence because she abdicated the role of daughter in favor of exercising autonomy.

"Elements of Tragedy in Arthur Miller's The Crucible" by Wesley James Hellman, University of Mary, Assistant Professor of Communication
The author applied the classic tenets of humanity's unavoidable contact with evil, the suffering that results from the choices made regarding relative evils, and the culminating establishment of new values as the inherent elements of the tragic struggle to the character of John Proctor in the modern play by Arthur Miller entitled, "The Crucible."

"Teaching Communication Ethics by Encouraging Values and Habits" by Robert A. Bode, Western Washington University, Assistant Professor of Communication
Values and habits can be taught by asking students to engage in the Nominal Group Technique. Four values were recommended to teachers: respect for the dignity and worth of the individual, fairness, freedom coupled with responsibility, and belief in each person's ability to understand democracy. Habits to be nurtured include teaching students that when communicating they are the primary and sole source of the view expressed, encouraging the habit of justice, supporting the preference for public to private motives, and respecting dissent.

"1993 NDSTA Award Winners"
1993 Hall of Fame inductees (John Penn, University of North Dakota; Donna Stack, University of Mary; E. James Ubbelohde, North Dakota State University; and Jean Waldera, Dickinson State University) and the elected and nominated NDSTA award winners were presented.

Journal Ad Sponsors: University of North Dakota College of Fine Arts & Communication; Dickinson State University School of Arts and Science; University of Mary Communications Department; North Dakota State University Department of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Robert A. Bode, Western Washington University; Conrad Davidson, Minot State University; Dennis Davis, University of North Dakota; Joy Erickson, North Dakota State University; Thomas Endres, University of St. Thomas; Mary Gill, Buena Vista College; Donna Stack, University of Mary

 

Volume 8, 1995

Editors: Stephen Rendahl (UND) and Beverly Huschka (U of Mary)

Editorial Assistants: Jerry Anderson (U of Mary), Ryan D. Huschka (UND), and Lori Leingang (U of Mary)

"What Age Do You Want to Be?" by Jean Waldera, Dickinson State University, Professor Emeritus of Theatre Arts
As the keynote speaker for the convention, Waldera provided an historical overview of theatre and suggested that there has been some form of theatre in every world culture.

"A Functional Approach to Improvisation in the Production Rehearsal" by Kenneth Haught, Dickinson State University, Assistant Professor of Communication
This essay isolated two major functions of improvisation used during production rehearsals: spontaneous creativity, an exploration of the actor's self that lends that actor's natural quality to the performance; and interpretive creativity, an empathic extension of the actor into the play script.

"Performance Appraisal Research Applied to Forensics" by Denelle Wolff, North Dakota State University, Graduate Teaching Assistant in Communication
This paper showed how performance appraisal techniques used in the business community can benefit the forensics community. Performance appraisal research was summarized and focused into the areas of a supportive climate, goal setting, and participative goal setting. Survey research methods were used to determine performance appraisal techniques being used by coaches at a tournament in the upper midwest.

"An Historical Review of Public Speaking as a Component of the Language Arts Curriculum in North Dakota" by Robert S. Littlefield, North Dakota State University, Professor of Communication
Littlefield chronicled how educators in the early years of North Dakota's history dealt with the challenges of accreditation, declining enrollments, limited resources, and insufficient training opportunities for teachers engaged in communication education. Archival research produced information about communication curriculum development in public schools between 1891 and 1917.

"Ambiguity as a Communication Strategy in the WCTU: National and North Dakota" by Linda Wurtz, North Dakota State University, Graduate Student in Communication
The ambiguous organizational communication strategies used by the Women's Christian Temperance Movement, along with a storytelling style of advocacy, helped to create an organizational saga for membership. These strategies were ideological statements, speeches, newsletters, and personal communication. Ambiguity allowed flexibility while the saga provided guidance needed to reach, support, and direct the membership. The ambiguity of the national directives allowed the North Dakota chapter members to deal with those issues that would have a significant effect on the state, and disregard those subjects that were irrelevant, uncomfortable, or beyond their capabilities.

"The Domino Pizza Crisis: Can the Company Still Deliver?" by Tamara D. Rhodes, North Dakota State University, Graduate Teaching Assistant in Communication
This paper explored the image restoration strategies Dominos Pizza used when a jury awarded nearly $79 million to a St. Louis woman who was hurt when a delivery driver hit her car broadside. Rhodes argued that Dominos Pizza, through the process of cycling, eliminated its "rule" of the 30-Minute Guarantee, creating a perceived correction of the problem and bolstering its image. In addition to analyzing previous discourse concerning image restoration strategies, the communication process and the environmental components involved when handling a crisis in an organization were investigated.

"External Agencies as Advocates in Organizational Crisis Communication: The Bismarck Wood House as a Case Study" by Robert R. Ulmer, North Dakota State University, Graduate Teaching Assistant, and Timothy L. Sellnow, North Dakota State University, Associate Professor of Communication
The study examined the relationship between the Bismarck Wood House and its regulatory agencies during the E. coli bacteria crisis situation. Specifically, the Wood House incident served as a case study to explore the degree to which messages from external agencies bolstered the restaurant's image and minimized the public's perception of negligence. If organizations foster positive relationships with government agencies and the media prior to a crisis, the authors contend that this prior relationship can help organizations to manage the crisis effectively.

"Broadcaster Self-Disclosure as a Factor in Audience Building" by Ann E. Preston, North Dakota State University, Assistant Professor of Communication; Richard A. Mattern, North Dakota State University, Lecturer of Communication; C. William Chandler, Edinboro University, Assistant Professor of Communication; Douglas J. Carr, St. Bonaventure University (NY), Assistant Professor of Mass Communication
The study focused on two markets, Buffalo, NY, and Fargo, ND, to determine if patterns of self disclosure observed in interpersonal contexts were repeated in the broadcast news. Self-disclosure was not found to be a necessary or sufficient component of market position; nor were females more self-revealing than males. Reciprocity of disclosure was found to be related to increased disclosure; however, it was found only in the station with the smallest audience. The results suggested that the two markets yielded contradictory results regarding the relationship between frequency of disclosure and affect measured by market position. Of the five hypotheses tested, only one which stated that disclosure will increase with reciprocity of disclosure by viewers found support.

"1994 Award Winners"
1994 Hall of Fame inductees (Dr. Edna Gilbert, Minot State University; and Dr. Hazel Heiman, University of North Dakota) and the elected and nominated NDSTA award winners were presented.

Journal Ad Sponsors: University of North Dakota School of Communication; Allard Trophy Company; University of Mary Communications Department; Dickinson State University Departments of Languages and Literature and Fine Arts; North Dakota State University Department of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Robert A. Bode, Western Washington University; Dennis Davis, University of North Dakota; Thomas Endres, University of St. Thomas; and Mary Gill, Buena Vista College

 

Volume 9, 1996

Editors: Stephen Rendahl (UND) and Daniel McRoberts (Valley City State University)

Editorial Assistants: Janna Mostad (U of Mary) and Beverly A. Huschka (U of Mary)

"Price's Proposition as a Tool" by J.D. Patterson, Jamestown College, Instructor of Speech and Theatre
Script analysis was developed as key to the successful direction of a play. William T. Price developed a series of questions to help the director and actors identify and understand the syllogism describing the main action of a play. Price sought to demonstrate that all plays have a proposition: The condition of the action, the cause of the action, and the resulting action. Each of these "clauses" was explained with examples from Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, All My Sons by Arthur Miller, and The Wild Duck by Henrik Ibsen.

"Reconsidering Gender-Related Research in Interpersonal Communication" by Dr. Deanna D. Sellnow, NDSU Assistant Professor of Communication; and Tamara D. Rhodes, NDSU Graduate Teaching Assistant in Communication
This article was a review of 23 contemporary gender-related interpersonal communication studies to discover how scholars measured gender and what they claimed to find. The authors argued that communication research must discontinue the practice of measuring gender based upon sex. Based upon their review, the authors found: 1) most of the studies relied on sex categories as the independent variable; 2) many studies "cloud the distinction between sex and gender"; and 3) some studies measured sex differences contaminated by the use of sex role stereotypes. Several models were suggested for researchers who wanted to avoid these pitfalls in their research on gender in interpersonal communication. An extensive bibliography was provided for the article.

"Order Out of Chaos: The Archetypal Metaphor in Early American Rhetoric" by Dr. Donald E. Rice, Concordia College, Associate Professor of Speech Communication
The study proposes that metaphors serve an ontological function of helping people to understand how they view themselves collectively through the metaphors used by public figures who serve as opinion leaders and opinion shapers. Several documents of the American Revolutionary War period issued by James Madison were analyzed. Two theories about the use of metaphors provided the context for Rice's position: 1) There are a variety of metaphorical types suited to different purposes; and 2) metaphors can lead to action. He found that images of organic growth, disease and its remedies, and fires and their containment were powerful symbols to those individuals involved with building a new nation.

"Volunteer Culture" by Jan Orvik, UND, Writer/Editor in the University Relations Department
Organizations were examined to determine the culture of volunteers. The literature suggested that both volunteers and organizations rely on identification with a group "culture" to succeed. Several focus groups of volunteers were used to generate transcripts enabling the researcher to identify characteristics of Pankowski and O'Donnell-Trujillo's (1983) "communicative performance theory" as it relates to volunteers. Communication performance must be interactional, contextual, episodic, and improvisational. The topics generated in the focus groups were used to analyze a promotional videotape. The investigation revealed that there is a specific "culture" of volunteers that reflected the four dimensions of communication performance theory.

"Crisis Communication, Enacted Sensemaking and Prairie Public Broadcasting" by David Wahlberg, NDSU, Graduate Student in Communication and Director of University Relations
This paper examined how the Prairie Public Broadcasting board of directors managed the crisis of allegations made by employees that the president of PPB was responsible for questionable business practices and that he ruled the organization through threats. Weick's (1988) theory of enacted sensemaking (commitment, capacity, and expectations) was used to determine if the social legitimacy of the organization was upheld when PPB found itself in the public eye. The data were drawn from the Forum from September 27 through October 8, 1995. The author concluded that the board members did not act in a manner consistent with commonly accepted principles of crisis management and their actions did not restore confidence in the board's ability to handle the situation.

"System-Wide Advocacy Through a Single Spokesperson? North Dakota's Higher Education System as a Case Study" by Matthew Coumbe, NDSU Graduate Teaching Assistant in Communication; and Dr. Timothy L. Sellnow, NDSU, Chair and Associate Professor of Communication
The authors considered how the North Dakota University System could best communicate its position to the public and legislature. Specifically, the communication strategies used by North Dakota's state universities and Board of Higher Education resulting from the budget crisis in 1989 were examined. Five Directors of University Relations at the largest of the NDUS institutions were interviewed. The review of literature suggested that organizations that communicate effectively focus on a mission that is emphasized to all members of the organization and the public. Formal channels are important, but "emergent networks" can contribute positively to the conveyance of the message. The conclusions reflected that there are specific roles to be played by the institutional representatives in the communication process. However, the centralization of the chancellor as the primary spokesperson for the University System would be the best way to advocate the needs of the member institutions. There was a wariness on the part of the Directors about too much centralization within the system.

"The Spicer Tragedy" by Dennis Neumann, NDSU Graduate Teaching Assistant in Communication
This study describes the local and area newspaper coverage of the murder of the Thomas Spicer family at their Emmons County farm in south-central North Dakota. Although there were no witnesses to the crimes, public speculation immediately fell on Indians. The arrest, trial, and lynching of three of the five Indians arrested provide the basis for the coverage. Coverage in the Winona Times (a weekly paper published in the town closest to the scene of the murders), the Emmons County Record (the site of the lynchings), and the Bismarck Daily Tribune provided the data for the study. The news reporting confirmed the strong prejudice against Indians in North Dakota and the willingness of newspapers to reflect that sentiment.

"1995 Award Winners"
Hall of Fame Inductees (Dr. W.E. Lillo, Concordia College; F.U. (Frank) Smith, ND High School Activities Association; and Ellie Gibson, Kindred High School) along with the nominated and elected award winners were presented.

Journal Ad Sponsors: NDSU Department of Communication; Allard Trophy Company; Dickinson State University Departments of Language and Literature and Fine Arts; University of Mary Communications Department; UND School of Communication

Editorial Reviewers: Robert A. Bode, Western Washington University; Dennis Davis, UND; Thomas Endries, University of St. Thomas; and Mary Gill, Buena Vista College.

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